Ginseng (genus Panax) is a herbal dietary supplement of Chinese medicine, which is probably most often used by athletes and physically active persons. The genus Panax includes the perennials originating from America (Latin: Panax quinquefolius) and Asia (Latin: Panax ginseng). The genus often also includes Siberian ginseng (Latin: Eleutherococcus senticosus), which in fact belongs to the genus Eleutherococcus. Ginseng is used by physically active persons i.e. to improve the function of the cardiovascular system, increase aerobic and anaerobic efficiency as well as improve mental capability. Scientific research shows that ginseng may be successfully used by both athletes and physically active persons. It is deemed by many scientists as an ergogenic substance, that is a substance which after administration contributes to improvement of sports results. Do not forget about the well-known properties of ginseng, that is about improvement of concentration, coordination, vigilance and maintenance of proper vitality. Physically active persons will certainly benefit from the pleiotropic effect of ginseng. Ginseng and other similar perennials have been used for many years in order to increase vitality and strengthen the body. Some scientific research suggests that ginseng may increase production of antibodies, activity of natural killer cells and contribute to prevention and therapy of diseases of the respiratory system. In sports supplementation ginseng is attributed with ergogenic properties, for which the active substances such as ginsenosides and eleutherosides are responsible. It is believed that ginseng may influence the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and reduce the catabolic effect of cortisol. Supplementation with ginseng may improve sports results, allow athletes to train more intensively or reduce muscle injuries and increase endurance during competition. However the most important fact is that the above presumptions have been confirmed with scientific research.